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South America
South America (orthographic projection).svg
Map of South America
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South America, earlier known simply as America (1507–1538),[2] is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas.[3]

It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic OceanNorth America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It includes thirteen sovereign states – ArgentinaBoliviaBrazilChileColombiaEcuadorGuyanaParaguayPeruSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUruguay, and Venezuela – and two non-sovereign areas – French Guiana, an overseas region of France, and the Falkland Islands, aBritish Overseas Territory. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Netherlands may also be considered part of South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after AsiaAfrica, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America).

Most of the population lives near the western or eastern coasts of the continent while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and large river basins such as the AmazonParaná and Orinoco. Most of the continent lies in the tropics.

The continent is culturally, ethnically and racially diverse, hosting cultures and peoples originating in South America as well as Europe, Africa and Asia. Given a history of colonialism, most South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, and societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions.