Central Asia
Central Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Map of Central Asia
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Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. It is also sometimes referred to as Middle Asia, and, colloquially, "the 'stans" (as the five countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of")[1] and is within the scope of the widerEurasian continent.

In modern contexts, all definitions of Central Asia include these five republics of the former Soviet UnionKazakhstan (pop. 16.6 million), Kyrgyzstan(5.5 million), Tajikistan (7.6 million), Turkmenistan (5.1 million), and Uzbekistan (29.5 million), for a total population of 64.7 million as of 2012. Other areas sometimes included are AfghanistanMongolia, eastern Iran, and northwestern Pakistan, and sometimes Xinjiang and Tibet in western China, the Kashmir region of northern India and northern Pakistan, and southern Siberia in southern Russia.

Various definitions of its exact composition exist, and no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, it does have some important overall characteristics. For one, Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road.[2] As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between EuropeWest AsiaSouth Asia, and East Asia.[3]

During pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was a predominantly Iranian[4][5] region that included the sedentary Eastern Iranian–speakingBactriansSogdians and Chorasmians, and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Alans. The ancient sedentary population played an important role in the history of Central Asia. After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia also became the homeland for many Turkic peoples, including the Kazakhs,UzbeksTurkmenKyrgyz and Uyghurs. Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan[6][7][8][9]

Since the earliest of times, Central Asia has been a crossroad between different civilizations. The silk route which passed through Central Asia connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe, India, and China. [10]

From the 19th century, up to the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia has been part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, both beingSlavic majority countries. As of 2011, the 5 "stans" are still home to about 7 million Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians.[11][12][13]